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Persea americana

Mill., 1768

Avocatier


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Classification/taxinomie :
Famille : Lauraceae ;
Synonymes : Persea gratissima C.F.Gaertn. 1807 ;

Synonymes français : avocatier commun, avocatier américain, avocatier du Guatemala [Guatemalan race] ;

Nom(s) anglais et/ou international(aux) : alligator-pear [West Indian race], avocado, avocado-pear [West Indian race], Guatemalan avocado [Guatemalan race], lowland avocado [West Indian race], Mexican avocado [Mexican race], Trapp avocado [West Indian race], West Indian avocado [West Indian race], e li (cn transcrit), Avocado (de), Avocadobaum (de), Avocadopalme (de), abokado (jp romaji), wani-nashi (jp romaji), abacate (pt,br), aguacate (es), palto (es), avokado (sv) ;


Rusticité (résistance face au froid/gel) : -8/-11 (-6)


Comestibilité : - rapport de consommation et comestibilité/consommabilité inférée (partie(s) utilisable(s) et usage(s) alimentaire(s) correspondant(s)) :

Partie(s) comestible(s)µ{{{0(+x)µ : fruit, légume, prudenceµ{{{0(+x)µ.
Utilisation(s)/usage(s)µ{{{0(+x)
µ culinaire(s) :
-la pulpe du fruit est consommée crue ou cuite ; elle est consommée dans les salades, soupes, sandwichs, pâtes à tartiner, la crème glacée, et aussi dans les tortillas et le vin ;
les fruits sont mélangés avec du sucre et de l'eau pour faire une boisson ;
-l'huile est extraite de la chair ; elle est utilisée dans la vinaigrette ;
-les feuilles peuvent être utilisées pour le thé sucré avec du jus de canne à sucre ; les feuilles grillées sont utilisées pour les ragoûts de saison et les plats de haricotsµ{{{0(+x)µ.(1*)


Précautions à prendre

Précautions à prendre :

(1*)ATTENTIONµ0(+x)µ : certaines personnes sont allergiquesµ<0(+x)µ.


Vendeurs graines : musapalm, palmaris, tropicaplante, ediblelandscaping (3 variétés), tropicaflore (Hass greffé et cloné duke7, résistant à -10°C ?)

Liens, sources et/ou références : CRFG ("California Rare Fruit Growers", en anglais) ; "Top Tropicals : avocado varieties" (en anglais) ;

dont classification : "The Plant List" (en anglais) ; 2500"GRIN" (en anglais) ; INPI (recherche, en anglais) ;

dont Google (recherche de/pour) "Persea americana" : pages , images | "Avocatier" : pages ;

dont livres et bases de données : 0"FOOD PLANTS INTERNATIONAL" (en anglais) ;

dont biographie/références de "FOOD PLANTS INTERNATIONAL" :

AAK, 1980, Bertanam Pohon Buah-buahan. Penerbitan Yayasan Kanisius, Jogyakarta. p 7 ; Abbiw, D.K., 1990, Useful Plants of Ghana. West African uses of wild and cultivated plants. Intermediate Technology Publications and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. p 42 ; Alexander, D.M., Scholefield, P.B., Frodsham, A., 1982, Some tree fruits for tropical Australia. CSIRO, Australia. p 9 ; Ambasta, S.P. (Ed.), 2000, The Useful Plants of India. CSIR India. p 442 ; Anderson, E. F., 1993, Plants and people of the Golden Triangle. Dioscorides Press. p 217 ; Barwick, M., 2004, Tropical and Subtropical Trees. A Worldwide Encyclopedic Guide. Thames and Hudson p 316 ; Bekele-Tesemma A., Birnie, A., &amp; Tengnas, B., 1993, Useful Trees and Shrubs for Ethiopia. Regional Soil Conservation Unit. Technical Handbook No 5. p 346 ; Bennett, B. C., 1990, Useful Plants of Amazonian Ecuador. US Agency for International Development. Fifth Progress Report. New York Botanical Gardens. p 39 ; Bergh, B.O., 1979, Avocado, in Simmonds N.W.,(ed), Crop Plant Evolution. Longmans. London. p 148 (Also as Persea americana var. drymifolia) ; Bianchini, F., Corbetta, F., and Pistoia, M., 1975, Fruits of the Earth. Cassell. p 172 ; Bodkin, F., 1991, Encyclopedia Botanica. Cornstalk publishing, p 773 ; Bodner, C. C. and Gereau, R. E., 1988, A Contribution to Bontoc Ethnobotany. Economic Botany, 43(2): 307-369 ; Bremness, L., 1994, Herbs. Collins Eyewitness Handbooks. Harper Collins. p 72 ; Burkill, I.H., 1966, A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol 2 (I-Z) p 1726 ; Casas, A., et al, 1996, Plant Management Among the Nahua and the Mixtec in the Balsas River Basin, Mexico: An Ethnobotanical Approach to the Study of Plant Domestication. Human Ecology, Vol. 24, No. 4 pp. 455-478 Cheifetz, A., (ed), 1999, 500 popular vegetables, herbs, fruits and nuts for Australian Gardeners. Random House p 217 ; Chin, H.F., &amp; Yong, H.S., 1996, Malaysian Fruits in Colour. Tropical press, Kuala Lumpur p 62 ; Cobley, L.S. (rev. Steele, W.M.) 2nd Ed., 1976, An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops. Longmans. p 190 ; Coe, F. G. and Anderson, G. J., 1999, Ethnobotany of the Sumu (Ulwa) of Southeastern Nicaragua and Comparisons with Miskitu Plant Lore. Economic Botany Vol. 53. No. 4. pp. 363-386 ; Condit, R., et al, 2011, Trees of Panama and Costa Rica. Princeton Field Guides. p 260 ; Cooper, W. and Cooper, W., 2004, Fruits of the Australian Tropical Rainforest. Nokomis Editions, Victoria, Australia. p 265 ; Coronel, R.E., 1982, Fruit Collections in the Philippines. IBPGR Newsletter p 8 ; Cull, B.W., 1995, Fruit Growing in Warm Climates. Reed. p 51 ; Cundall, P., (ed.), 2004, Gardening Australia: flora: the gardener's bible. ABC Books. p 1012 ; Darley, J.J., 1993, Know and Enjoy Tropical Fruit. P &amp; S Publishers. p 5 ; Dharani, N., 2002, Field Guide to common Trees &amp; Shrubs of East Africa. Struik. p 143 ; Econ. Bot. 31:318. 1977 (As Persea americana var. nubigena) ; Etherington, K., &amp; Imwold, D., (Eds), 2001, Botanica's Trees &amp; Shrubs. The illustrated A-Z of over 8500 trees and shrubs. Random House, Australia. p 515 ; Facciola, S., 1998, Cornucopia 2: a Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, p 139 ; Flowerdew, B., 2000, Complete Fruit Book. Kyle Cathie Ltd., London. p 149 ; Fowler, D. G., 2007, Zambian Plants: Their Vernacular Names and Uses. Kew. p 82 ; French, B.R., 1986, Food Plants of Papua New Guinea, A Compendium. Asia Pacific Science Foundation p 216 ; French, B.R., 2010, Food Plants of Solomon Islands. A Compendium. Food Plants International Inc. p 216 ; Friday, J. B., 2005, Forestry and Agroforestry Trees of East Timor. http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/data/Timor/Timor trees.html ; Goode, P., 1989, Edible Plants of Uganda. FAO p 27 ; Grandtner, M. M., 2008, World Dictionary of Trees. Wood and Forest Science Department. Laval University, Quebec, Qc Canada. (Internet database http://www.wdt.qc.ca) ; Hearne, D.A., &amp; Rance, S.J., 1975, Trees for Darwin and Northern Australia. AGPS, Canberra p 93, Pl 29 ; Hedrick, U.P., 1919, (Ed.), Sturtevant's edible plants of the world. p 471 (As Persea gratissima) ; Henty, E.E., 1980, Harmful Plants in Papua New Guinea. Botany Bulletin No 12. Division Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. p 76, ; Hermandez Bermejo, J.E., and Leon, J. (Eds.), 1994, Neglected Crops. 1492 from a different perspective. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No 26. FAO, Rome. p15 ; http://palaeoworks.anu.edu.au/Nuno_PhD/04.pdf re Timor ; Hu, Shiu-ying, 2005, Food Plants of China. The Chinese University Press. p 402 ; Jardin, C., 1970, List of Foods Used In Africa, FAO Nutrition Information Document Series No 2.p 154 ; John, L., &amp; Stevenson, V., 1979, The Complete Book of Fruit. Angus &amp; Robertson p 63 ; J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10:15. 1920 (As Persea americana var. drymifolia) ; Katende, A.B., Birnie, A &amp; Tengnas B., 1995, Useful Trees and Shrubs for Uganda. Identification, Propagation and Management for Agricultural and Pastoral Communities. Technical handbook No 10. Regional Soil Conservation Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. p 486 ; Kapelle, M., et al, 2000, Useful plants within a Campesino Community in a Costa Rican Montane Cloud Forest. Mountain Research and Development, 20(2): 162-171 ; Kiple, K.F. &amp; Ornelas, K.C., (eds), 2000, The Cambridge World History of Food. CUP p 1725 ; Lazarides, M. &amp; Hince, B., 1993, Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia, CSIRO. p 185 ; Lembaga Biologi Nasional, 1977, Buah-Buahan, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta. p 10 ; Li Xi-wen, Li Jie, Huang Puhua, van der Werff, H., Lauraceae. Flora of China. ; Llamas, K.A., 2003, Tropical Flowering Plants. Timber Press. p 243 ; Long, C., 2005, Swaziland's Flora - siSwati names and Uses http://www.sntc.org.sz/flora/ ; Lord, E.E., &amp; Willis, J.H., 1999, Shrubs and Trees for Australian gardens. Lothian. p 63 ; Lyle, S., 2006, Discovering fruit and nuts. Land Links. p 316 ; Macmillan, H.F. (Revised Barlow, H.S., et al) 1991, Tropical Planting and Gardening. Sixth edition. Malayan Nature Society. Kuala Lumpur. p 288 ; Martin, F. W., et al, 1987, Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics. USDA Handbook 642 p 31 (Also as Persea leiogyna) ; Mbuya, L.P., Msanga, H.P., Ruffo, C.K., Birnie, A &amp; Tengnas, B., 1994, Useful Trees and Shrubs for Tanzania. Regional Soil Conservation Unit. Technical Handbook No 6. p 384 ; Morton, J. F., 1987, Fruits of Warm Climates. Wipf &amp; Stock Publishers p 91 ; Mutchnick, P. A. and McCarthy, B. C., 1997, An Ethnobotanical Analysis of the Tree Species Common to the Subtropical Moist Forests of the Peten, Guatemala. Economic Botany, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 158-183 ; Norrington, L., &amp; Campbell, C., 2001, Tropical Food Gardens. Bloomings Books. p 90 ; Omawale, 1973, Guyana's edible plants. Guyana University, Georgetown p 33 ; Peekel, P.G., 1984, (Translation E.E.Henty), Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists, Division of Botany, Lae, PNG. p 186 ; Pham-Hoang Ho, 1999, An Illustrated Flora of Vietnam. Nha Xuat Ban Tre. p 390 ; Plants for a Future database, The Field, Penpol, Lostwithiel, Cornwall, PL22 0NG, UK. http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/ (As Persea edulis) ; Plants of Haiti Smithsonian Institute http://botany.si.edu/antilles/West Indies ; PROSEA (Plant Resources of South East Asia) handbook, Volume 2, 1991, Edible fruits and nut. p 251 (Also as Persea americana var. drymifolia and Persea americana var. nubigena) ; Purseglove, J.W., 1968, Tropical Crops Dicotyledons, Longmans. p 192 ; Quintana, C. M., 2010, Wild Plants in the Dry Valleys Around Quito Ecuador. An Illustrated Guide. Publicationes del Harbario, QCA p 138 ; Recher, P, 2001, Fruit Spirit Botanical Gardens Plant Index. www.nrg.com.au/~recher/ seedlist.html p 3 ; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Published on the Internet; http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ceb/sepasal/internet [Accessed 21st April 2011] ; Schneider, E., 2001, Vegetables from Amaranth to Zucchini: The essential reference. HarperCollins. p 38 ; Sharma, B.B., 2005, Growing fruits and vegetables. Publications Division. Ministry of Information and broadcasting. India. p 18 (As Persea americana var. drymifolia) ; Smith, A.C., 1981, Flora Vitiensis Nova, Lawaii, Kuai, Hawaii, Volume 2 p 115 ; Staples, G.W. and Herbst, D.R., 2005, A tropical Garden Flora. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. p 368 (Drawing) ; Tabuti, J. R. S., 2012, Important Woody Plant Species, their Management and Conservation Status in Balawoli Sub-country, Uganda. Ethnobotany Research &amp; Applications 10:269-286 ; Tankard, G., 1990, Tropical fruit. An Australian Guide to Growing and using exotic fruit. Viking p 20 ; Tate, D., 1999, Tropical Fruit. Archipelago Press. Singapore. p 80 ; Thaman, R.R., 1976, The Tongan Agricultural System, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. p 416 ; USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/econ.pl (10 April 2000) ; van Roosmalen, M.G.M., 1985, Fruits of the Guianan Flora. Utrecht Univ. &amp; Wageningen Univ. p 160 ; van Wyk, B., 2005, Food Plants of the World. An illustrated guide. Timber press. p 285 ; Vickery, M.L. and Vickery, B., 1979, Plant Products of Tropical Africa, Macmillan. p 38 ; Walter, A. &amp; Lebot, V., 2007, Gardens of Oceania. ACIAR Monograph No. 122. p 166 ; Williams, C.N., Chew, W.Y., and Rajartnam, J.A., 1989, Tree and Field Crops of the Wetter Regions of the Tropics. Longman, p ; Williamson, J., 2005, Useful Plants of Malawi. 3rd. Edition. Mdadzi Book Trust. p 194 ; Yuncker, T.G., 1959, Plants of Tonga, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Hawaii, Bulletin 220. p 118 ; Zaldivar, M. E., et al, 2002, Species Diversity of Edible Plants Grown in Homegardens of Chibehan Amerindians from Costa Rica. Human Ecology, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 301-316 ; Zuchowski W., 2007, Tropical Plants of Costa Rica. A Zona Tropical Publication, Comstock Publishing. p 180




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